Later on, Jane Austen also used "love and friendship" (something of a
stock phrase in the literature of the time) to good effect in Chapter 4 of her
novel Northanger Abbey (in
the remark "Friendship is certainly the finest balm for the pangs of
disappointed love", which is rather amusing in its context).
Sensitivity, susceptibility to feelings, emotionalism, sentimentalism.
Jane Austen mocks the literary enthusiasm for sensibility in
Love and Freindship, and in
Sense and Sensibility
criticized its usefulness as a guide by which to conduct one's life.
On the other hand, when Henry Tilney shows "the embarrassment of real
sensibility" in the next-to-last chapter of
it means that he feels properly ashamed of his father's disgraceful
Bedfordshire and Middlesex (London)
are about thirty miles apart in central south England, while the vale of Usk
(in south Wales) is about a hundred and twenty miles away (as can be seen on
Gilpin, whose book on the highlands is referred to
later on in Love and Freindship, also wrote on the picturesque
beauty of South Wales, in a book first published in 1782 (and reprinted in
1789, one year before the writing of
Love and Freindship).
"The enforcement by the sheriff, or other officer, of the judgment of the
court; ``the obtaining of actual possession of anything acquired by judgement
of law''; chiefly the seizure of the goods or person of a debtor in default of
payment" -- OED.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's novel The Sorrows of Young
Werther (also in epistolary form,
by the way) was first published (in German) in 1774. Goethe himself described
it as the story of a young man "gifted with deep, pure sentiment and
penetrating intelligence, who loses himself in fantastic dreams and
undermines himself with speculative thought until finally, torn by hopeless
passions, especially by infinite love, he shoots himself in the head".
William Makepeace Thackeray was moved to write the following poem on the book:
The Sorrows of Werther (1853)
Werther had a love for Charlotte
Such as words could never utter;
Would you know how first he met her?
She was cutting bread and butter.
Charlotte was a married lady,
And a moral man was Werther,
And for all the worth of Indies,
Would do nothing for to hurt her.
So he sighed and pined and ogled,
And his passion boiled and bubbled,
Till he blew his silly brains out
And no more was by it troubled.
Charlotte, having seen his body
Borne before her on a shutter,
Like a well-conducted person
Went on cutting bread and butter.
Thomas Wolsey (ca. 1475-1530), who was born the son of a butcher, became
influential (and very wealthy) in the church, and as an advisor to King Henry
VIII, but lost favour when he couldn't arrange for the Pope to give Henry a
divorce from his first wife; he died under arrest for treason (as dramatized
in Shakespeare's King Henry VIII, which is also mentioned by Jane
Austen in Mansfield Park).
Of course, in Classical mythology it is Cupid who has the arrows
and Jupiter (Zeus) the thunderbolt. Jane Austen never refers
seriously to Classical
literature (which was part of boys' education, but not usually of girls').
William Gilpin's Observations on several parts
of Great Britain, particularly the High-lands of Scotland, relative chiefly to
picturesque beauty, made in the year 1776; this was first published in 1789 (one
year before the writing of Love and
Freindship). Jane Austen later mocked the cult of the picturesque in
her novel Sense and
In Richard Brinsley Sheridan's play A Trip to Scarborough (1777), the following dialogue occurs:
"I hope, my lord, these buckles have had the
unspeakable satisfaction of being honoured with your lordship's approbation?"
"Why, they are of a pretty fancy; but
don't you think them rather of the smallest?"
"My lord, they could not well be larger, to
keep on your lordship's shoe."
"My good sir, you forget that these
matters are not as they used to be; formerly, indeed, the
buckle was a sort of machine, intended to keep on the
shoe; but the case is now quite reversed, and the shoe is
of no earthly use, but to keep on the buckle."
Sir Edward hopes for
a son, since his daughter
inherit his hereditary title of
Baronet (women were allowed to inherit titles only in
certain cases, usually subject to the strange laws of "abeyance").