Newcastle, Northumberland

Kearsley's Traveller's Entertaining Guide Through Great Britain (1803):

Newcastle-Upon-Tyne ,Northumberland, stands at the end of the Picts' Wall, on the north side of the Tyne. It is admitted to have been a Roman station, though no evidence at present appears, except at Pandon-gate, the superstructure of which is of different workmanship from any other building in the town, the arches being circular. The carpenter's tower is also of Roman original. In the time of the Saxons it was called Moncaster, from the monks, who fled from hence when it was laid waste by the Danes; it was afterwards called Newcastle from a castle built here by William the Conqueror's son Robert in 1080 to defend the country against the Scots, whose kings possessed and sometimes resided in this town before the Norman conquest. Several monastries were also built here soon after the castle; and it was greatly enriched by a good trade to Germany and by the sale of its coal to other parts of England, and it has become the emporium of the north of England. In the reign of Edward I it was burnt by the Scots. The inhabitants afterwards fortified the town and encompassed it with stout walls which extend two miles. Henry VII built a monastery here for the Franciscans; and it had several other religious structures . It is governed by a mayor and aldermen and returns two members to parliament. The castle overlooks the town past of which is much defaced but what remains is sufficient proof of its former strength. Here is a magnificent exchange and a custom house and one of the finest quays in England . In this town there are many churches worthy of the attention of the traveller. The old bridge being carried away by a flood the present one was erected in 1775. It was originally built of wood but having been destroyed by fire in 1248 was rebuilt with stone. The town is very populous and there are four churches: that of Saint Nicholas is a curious fabric, built by David king of Scots of Gothic architecture. Here are also several hospitals and charity schools. There were antiently several places in this town belonging to the northern nobility. Here is also a library, and infirmary, a theatre and many meeting houses . Ships for the coal trade are built here; and there are also in this town considerable manufactories of hardware and broad and narrow cloths etc.

Inns: Turk's head, Queen's head etc.

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 Chapter 51 
You and papa, and my sisters, must come down and see us. We shall be at Newcastle all the winter, and I dare say there will be some balls, and I will take care to get good partners for them all.
 Chapter 52 
I almost envy you the pleasure, and yet I believe it would be too much for me, or else I could take it in my way to Newcastle. And you saw the old housekeeper, I suppose? Poor Reynolds, she was always very fond of me. But of course she did not mention my name to you.
 Chapter 53 
The day of his and Lydia's departure soon came, and Mrs. Bennet was forced to submit to a separation which, as her husband by no means entered into her scheme of their all going to Newcastle, was likely to continue at least a twelvemonth.
 Chapter 53 
It is a delightful thing, to be sure, to have a daughter well married," continued her mother; "but, at the same time, Mr. Bingley, it is very hard to have her taken away from me. They are gone down to Newcastle, a place quite northward, it seems, and there they are to stay I do not know how long. His regiment is there; for I suppose you have heard of his leaving the -- -- shire, and of his being gone into the regulars. Thank Heaven! he has some friends, though, perhaps, not so many as he deserves.

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